Early Threlkelds
An overview of some of the earliest known references to the Threlkeld surname
in England, from a late 19th century document by William Jackson

The following was transcribed verbatim from an 1887 article by William Jackson, noted historian of Cumberland (Cumbria) and Westmorland Counties and authority on early Threlkeld families. Note that we have tried to keep the representation of the text exact, but page formatting has been altered slightly in order to better present it as a webpage.

Citation: Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society (1888) Series 1, Volume 9, Article XXII. "The Threlkelds of Threlkeld, Yanwath, and Crosby Ravensworth"; William Jackson. F.S.A. (pp. 298-317). Transcribed 2017 for the Threlkeld One-Name Study, http://threlkeldfamily.org.

ART. XXII.—The Threlkelds of Threlkeld, Yanwath, and Crosby Ravensworth. By W. Jackson, F.S.A. Communicated at Kirkby Stephen, July 7th, 1887.

THE manor of Threlkeld is situated at the foot of Blencathra, as that mountain was called in what we may term, through our entire ignorance of previous settlers, the language of the aboriginal inhabitants of the district. Our own forefathers have given it what sounds to our ears the more homely name of Saddleback.

How sequestered Threlkeld was, and how secure from the prying eyes of strangers to the district, we may conclude from the fact of its having been chosen, even so late as the fifteenth century, as a safe retreat for the young sons of the, so called, "Butcher" Clifford; the eldest of whom became known as the "Shepherd Lord." The manor gave its name to the family of its Lords, and as it is the only place so called, we are warranted in the conclusion, that wherever we find an individual of that name he sprang from that ancient house.

How the Lords of Threlkeld became also Lords of Yanwath, or a portion of it, or landowners in Crosby Ravensworth, we are yet ignorant; but Threlkeld was a mesne manor of the Barony of Greystokes; and Yanwath was held by the Greystokes under the Cliffords, Lords of the Barony of Westmorland; and, in the long chain of feudal dependency, the Threlkelds held that manor, or a portion of it, under the Greystokes, as they did their lands at Crosby Ravensworth, and as they continued to do under the Dacres, one of whom had married the heiress of the Greystokes. At Crosby Ravensworth they appear to have been closely associated with the family of Hastings. The Threlkeld arms seem to point to a connection with that ancient family; for, whereas the arms of Hastings are, sable, a maunch argent, the Threlkelds bore argent, a maunch gules; and it is worthy of note that William de Threlkeld, in the fourteenth century, bore a maunch, in chief six annulets, as is evidenced on two of his seals hereafter to be quoted; the annulets no doubt referring to the original dependency on the Viponts, first holders of the Barony of Westmorland, from whom the Cliffords acquired.

Early Threlkelds
Scanned image of the tree diagram contained in the original article. Note the truncation at the spine of the book;
no better quality scan has been found. Click image to view full size.

Genealogy is a science in which it is impossible to secure, even at the best, a perfectly satisfactory result, and as the heart alone knoweth its own bitterness, so the labourer in that field the most deeply feels his own failures. In this special instance, after more than usual investigation I have to lament that I have attained even less than an usual modicum of success. True, I have been able to add a good many facts, as Mr. Gradgrind would say, to the scanty notices given in Nicolson and Burn's history, and elsewhere in print, but I have been unable to rivet the links of the chain further back than the middle of the fourteenth century; other workers may, I hope, by future labours be enabled to weld their own discoveries and my fragments into a substantial addition to the pedigree sheet which I have compiled. I have determined to arrange all the notices of the Yanwath stem that I have succeeded in gathering in chronological order, and, where necessary, to translate the original records rather than to place them as footnotes.

Henry de Threlkeld
20 Edwd I (1292).
is said to have been Sheriff of Westmoreland. He probably was under Sheriff at this time, when the office of hereditary Sheriff was jointly held by Isabella de Clifford and Idonea de Leybourn as coheiresses of their father Robert de Veteripont.
—Nicolson and Burn's Histy of Westd and Cumbd
Vol. i., pp. 273 and 610.
Henry Threlkeld
32 Edwd I (1304).
had a grant of Free Warren at Yanwath, Crosby Ravensworth, Tebay & Rounthwaite.
—N. & B. Vol. i., PP. 492 & 498.
Willilm Thurkild
33 Edwd I (1304-5).
Abbas de Sancto Albano Inq. ad quod damnum de tenementis adquisitis de Roesia quæ fuit uxor Willielmi Thurkild.
—Calendarium Genealogicum p. 128.
Emma Threlkeld
10 Edwd II (1316-7).
was wife of Robert de Newbiggin. They had a daughter and heiress Emma, who married Robert de Crackanthorpe.
—N. & B. Vol. i., p. 366.
Henry Threlkeld
13 Edwd II (1319-20).
had a repetition of the Grant of Free Warren at Yanwath, Crosby Ravensworth, Tebay & Rounthwaite.
—N. & B. Vol. i., p. 498.
Henry Threlkeld
14 Edwd II (1320-1).
had a Grant of Free Warren at Threlkeld, Cumbd, & Yavennith, Crossby, &c., Westd.
—Charter Rolls, 14 Edw. II, Part 1, No. 6.
Robert de Threlkeld
8 Edwd III (1335).
March 29.
Confirmation by John, Bishop of Carlisle, of Letters Patent of Edwd III., granting licence to Robert de Threlkeld to alienate in mortmain a yearly rent of 74/7 in Appleby held of the King by yearly service of 2/10, which service is called Danegeld, to a chaplain who shall celebrate for his soul in the Church of St. Lawrence at Appleby. The Bishop also recites the charter of foundation of the Chantry, dated Saturday before the Feast of St. Gregory (March 12th) 1335. The Confirmation is dated at Rose.
—His. Man. Comn 10th Report, Appendix Part iv.,
Bagot Papers, p. 323.
Robert de Threlkeld. The above is quoted but as being confirmed by Bishop Ross 4th Edwd III (?) and the value as being 64/7 (?) with the addition "As appears by Inquisition taken by John de Lowther Escheator General in the Northern Parts. Town Chest Appleby."
—N. & B. Vol. i., p. 328.
William de Threlkeld
10 Edwd III (1336-7).
of Westmoreland, Had Licence to impark his Woods at Crosby Ravenswath.
—Patent Rolls.
John de Threlkeld
12 Edwd III 1338-9).
March 24.
Commission to John de Levyngton, S.P.P. an Augustinian Friar to receive the vow of chastity of Christian, widow of John de Threlkeld.
—Reg. John de Kirkby, epis. Carlisle, 208a.
Testamenta Eboracensia Vol. iv., p. 338.
Sir Henry Threlkeld
A dispute arose between Sir Henry Threlkeld, Lord of the Manor of Threlkeld, and his lay tenants of the one part, and the Provost and Canons of the Collegiate Church of Greystoke of the other part, respecting the nomination of a Curate to the Chapel at Threlkeld.
—N. & B. Vol. ii, page 374.
William de Threlkeld
15 Edwd III (1341-2).
sold certain burgages in the town of Appleby to Sir Robert de Clifford Lord of Westmd anno 15 Edwd III. and sealed with a manch charged with 6 annulets about which was wrt S. Willi. de Thirlkeld not Threlkeld as we write it now.
—Machell MSS. Vol. vi., p. 721.
William de Threlkeld
30 Edwd III (1356-7).
Sheriff of Cumberland to give an account of £40 with which he had to repair the gates of Carlisle.
—Communicated by Edw. Bellasis, Esq., Lancaster Herald.
Robert de Threlkeld
Bishop Welton made a confirmation of a grant by the said William Lord of Greystoke to one master and six chaplains, Robert de Threlkeld being one of the latter.
—Jefferson's Leath Ward, p. 351.
Robert de Threlkeld
appointed to the Vicarage of Crosby Ravensworth co. Westmerland by Abbot & Convent of Whitby. He died 1362.
—N. & B. Vol. i., P. 496.
William de Threlkeld
35 Edwd III (1361-2).
Grant from the King to William de Therekilde in fee of the manor of Dighton, co. York.
—Patent Rolls, 35 Edwd III.
William de Threlkeld
37 Edwd III (1363).
to March.
Grants to Henry de Threlkeld and John Wadesly (former his son) all his lands in Yanonwith which his sister Isabel de Thurynham held for her life. Inter testes, Sir Hugh de Lowther the son. Perfect seal, I think a maunch with a chief.
—Lowther Papers.
William de Threlkeld
38 Edwd III (1364-5).
John de Crofton for William de Threlkeld and Catherine his wife, Ullesby Manor, Cumbd.
—Chancery Series, Inq. ad quod damnum 2nd numbers, No. 38.
Robert de Threlkeld
William son of Robert de Threlkeld was instituted on a presentation by King Edwd III., in right of his ward Ralph Lord Greystock, to the Rectory of Dufton, Westmerland.
—N. & B. Vol. i., p. 358.
William de Threlkeld
40 Edwd III (1366-7).
paid a relief for the moiety of Eanwath which he held of the Barony of Graystock.
—N. & B. Vol. i., p. 412.
William de Threlkeld
42 Edwd III (1368-9).
Release by Wm de Threlkeld Knt to the Abbot and Convent of Byland of all his right in certain lands in Bretherdale.
—His. Man. Comn. 10th Report, Appendix, Part iv.
Bagot Papers, p. 323.
William de Threlkeld
40-1 Edwd III (1368).
Prov. June 13, London.
Prov. June 22, Rose.
Miles, Executor with Henry de Threlkeld and John de Dent to Will of Henry de Threlkeld. Names his wife Idonea. Bequeathes 20 marks to poor of Helton and Yanewith. Will in Norman French.
—Communicated by E. Bellasis, Esq., Lancaster Herald.
William de Threlked
46 Edwd III (?) (1372).
Inq. taken at Penrith co. Cumbd Monday next after Feast of St. Valentine, (Monday following Feb. 14), after the death of William de Threlkeld Chivaler decd Seized jointly with Katherine his wife & William their son of 2 parts of a moiety of the manor Uliesby of the grant of John de Crosseton (Crofton ?). Seized also in his demesne as of fee of the manor of Threlkeld with the appurtenances. He died Thursday next after the Feast of St. Luke the Evangelist last past, (Thursday following 18 Oct. 1371), and William son of John son of the said William de Threlkeld is his next heir and is aged 24 and more.
—Inq. P.M. Chancery Series, 46 Edwd III. No. 65.
Henry de Threlkeld
49 Edwd III (1376).
Oct. 6.
Fine levied in the Octave of Saint Michael between Henry de Threlkeld complainant and Thomas Taillor and Margaret his wife deforciants of 3 messuages 6 acres of meadow 1½ acre of wood & the 3rd part of 1 messuage with the appurtenances in Great Stykeland consideration 100 marks.
—Cumbd & Westmd Feet of Fines. Ordinary Series. Westmd No. 48.
William de Threlkeld
2 Rich. II (1379).
April 18.
Release by William de Threlkeld Knight son and heir of John de Threlkeld to the Abbot and Convent of Byland of all his right in certain lands in Bretherdale usurped by his grandfather William de Threlkeld within the bounds assigned by Henry late King of England &c.
—His. Man. Comn Tenth Report, Appendix, Part iv., p. 323.
Bagot Papers.
Henry de Threlkeld
3 Rich. II (1379).
Oct. 20.
Fine levied in three weeks from St. Michaels day between Robert Matthewson of Morland, Chaplain, William de Thorneburgh, Hugh de Salkeld and Thomas Lighclop, complainants, and Henry de Threlkeld and Johan his wife deforciants of 2 messuages 100 acres of land 16 acres of meadow and 8 acres of wood, with the appurtenances in Great Stirkeland consideration 100 marks.
—Cumbd & Westmd Feet of Fines.
Ordinary series, Westmd No. 2.
William de Threlkeld
Ricardus de Redman son and heir of Matthew de Redman confirms a Charter of the said Matthew, William de Threlkeld a witness.
—Duchetiana by Sir G. Duckett, p. 213.
William de Threlkeld
13 Rich. II (1389-90).
Knight of the Shire for Cumberland.
—N. & B. Lists of Knights of the Shire.
William de Threlkeld
of Ullesby.
2 Heny IV (1401).
Inq. taken at Penreth co. Cumbd Tuesday next before Feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Mary (25th March, 1401), after the death of William Threlkeld of Ullesby. Died seized to him and his heirs male of 2 parts of a moiety of the Manor of Ullesby with the appurtenances of the gift & grant of John Croston (Crofton ?). If he died s.p.m. the said two parts to go to the right heirs of William de Threlkeld Knt, his father. He died Nov. 3 last, without heirs male and William de Threlkeld of Crosby, Chivaler, is his cousin & next heir, viz., son of John son of the said William the father and is aged 40 and more.
—Inq. P.M. Chancery Series, Hen. IV. No. 16.
William de Threlkeld
5 Hen. IV (1403-4).
of Crosby Knt. cousin and heir of William Threlkeld Knt. father of William Threlkeld of Ulvesbye son of John son of William paid his relief for two parts of the moiety of the manor of Ulvesbye.
—N. & B. Vol. i., p. 498.
William de Threlkeld
10 Hen. IV (1409).
Inq. taken at Appilby co. Westd Monday next after the Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Mary (15 Aug. 1409), after the death of William Threlkeld, Chivaler, deceased. Seized in fee of the Manor of Crosby raveneswath with the appurtenances in co. Westmoreland, seized also jointly enfeoffed with Margaret late his wife deceased to them the heirs of their bodies of the 3rd part of the Manor of Yanwith with the appurtenances in said County. Said William and Margaret had issue two daughters viz., Margaret wife of John de Lancaster, chivaler, and Elizabeth wife of William Lancaster of Yanwith, which John de Lancaster and Margaret his wife and William de Lancaster and Elizabeth his wife immediately after the death of the said William Threlkeld chivaler entered upon the said third part of the manor of Yanwyth &c., and are aged 24 and more. William Threlkeld died on Feast of the Conception of the blessed Mary 10 Hen. IV., (8 Decr 1408), and Henry Threlkeld is his son and next heir and is aged 13 and more.
—Inq. P.M. Chancery Series, 10 Hen. IV., No. 14.
Henry Threlkeld
7 Hen. V (1420).
Oct. 28.
Inq. taken at Penreth co. Cumbd to prove the age of Henry Threlkeld son and heir of William Threlkeld chivaler decd. He was born at Threlkeld in the said Co on the Feast of St. Michael and was baptized in the church there on the same day. He was aged 21 on the Feast of St. Michael last. William Threlkeld aged 60 one of the witnesses.
—Inq. P.M. Chancery Series, 7 Hen. V., No. 84.
Henry Threlkeld
7 Hen. V (1420).
Novr 11.
This Indenture made at Crosby Ravenswath in the County of Westmd and on Martenmas day in November in the seventh year of the reign of King Henry the Fifth after the Conquest of England Witnesseth that I John Milthorp subestraetor of Willm de Beaulieux estraetor of our said Lord the King in the Counties of Cumbd & Westd by virtue of a Writ of the King directed to the same estraetor (the fealty of Henry Threlkeld son and heir of William Threlkeld Knight deceased contained in the said enclosed Writ being first taken) have made full seisin to the same Henry Threlkeld on the day of the execution of these presents of all the lands and tenements with their appurtenances of which the aforesaid William son of the same Henry Threlkeld was seized in his lordship as of Fee in the Counties aforesaid on the day on which he died and which by the death of the same William Threlkeld and by reason of the minority of the aforesaid Henry Threlkeld were taken into the hands of the Lord Henry lately King of England father of our Lord Henry the King who now is the rights of each being preserved as the tenour of the said Writ of the King in the matter demands and requires. In testimony whereof I the aforesaid John Milthorpp subestraetor have affixed my seal to the one part of the Indenture remaining in the hand of the abovesaid estraetor the aforesaid Henry Threlkeld has affixed his own seal given at the place day and year aforesaid.
—Communicated by Edwd Bellasis, Esq., Lancaster Herald.
Henry de Thirkeld
4 Hen. VI (1425).
Oct. 20.
Fine levied in three weeks from St. Michael's day between William de Stapulton junr Thomas de Burham and John Hankyn clk, complainants and Henry de Thirkeld chivaler and Margaret his wife deforciants of 20 messuages 200 acres of land 80 acres of meadow 10 acres of wood and 20/- rent with the appurtenances in Ullesby consideration 300 marks.
—Cumbd & Westmd Feet of Fines, Cumbd.
Sir Henry Threlkeld
6 Hen. VI (1427-8).
bought from Sir John de Lancaster of Howgill's four daughters and coheiresses in consideration £20 each the Lancaster moiety of Yanwath.
—N. & B. Vol. i., p. 413.
Sir Henry Threlkeld
22 Hen. VI (1444).
May 18.
Indented Articles in English made at Amotebrige in Cumberland between Sir Henry Threlkeld and Sir Thomas Strickland concerning the Government of Lancelot son to Sir Henry and for reconciling him to his father.
—Communicated by Edwd Bellasis, Esq., Lancaster Herald.
Henry Threlkeld, Knt.
25 Hen. VI (1446).
Nov. 18.
Fine levied in the Octave of St. Martin (Nov. 18) between Roger Crofte Vicar of Crosseby ravenswath co. Westd complainant and Henry Threlkeld Knt. and Alice his wife deforciants of a mediety of the Manor of Yanwyth with the appurtenances in co. Westm. Also of 4 messuages 160 acres of land 60 acres of meadow 200 acres of pasture and 10 acres of wood with the appurtenances in Threlkeld co. Cumberland.
—Feet of Fines Divers Counties.
Lancelot Threlkeld
31 Hen. VI (1452-3).
It was found that Ralph Baron of Graystock held of the Lord Thomas de Clifford sundry Manors and amongst them Yanwith and that Lancelot Threlkeld held Yanwith of the said Ralph.
—N. & B. Vol. i., p. 356.
Lancelot Threlkeld
34 Hen. VI (1455).
Release from John de Threlkeld to his brother Lancelot of all his right in a moiety of the Manor of Yanwith except so much land as shall be worth 20/- yearly. Dated Friday next after St. Katherines, 34 Hen. VI.
—Lowther Papers.
Robert Threlkeld
7 Edwd IV (1467-8).
Inq. concerning the foundation of a Chantry at Appleby co. Westd.
—Inq. P.M. &c., Chancery Series, No. 54.
Sir Lancelot Threlkeld
9 Edwd IV (1470).
June 28.
Inq. taken at Keterying co. Northampton after the death of Sir Henry Bromflete Knt. Lord Vessy (date of death illegible). Margaret wife of Sir Lancelot Threlkeld Knt. is his daughter and next heir and is aged 26 and more.
—Chancery Inq. P.M. 8 (?) Edwd IV., No. 37.
Lancelot Thirkyld
7 Hen. VII (1491-2).
Plaintiff and John Flemyng defendant. Outlawry on a recognizance for debt. Plaintiff took the issues and profits of certain lands that were late of Sir Richard Huddelston which he received in right of his wife.
—Duchy of Lancaster Pleadings, Vol. ii., T 5.
Sir Lancelot Threlkeld
7 & 8 Hen. VII (1492-3).
Knt. Sheriff of Cumberland.
—MS. List of Sheriffs. Pub. Recd Office.
10 Hen. VII (1494).
Oct. 28.
Inq. (record in bad condition) taken after the death of Sir John Hudylston Knt. decd. Richard Hudylston son of Sir Richard Hudylston Knt. son of the said Sir John Hudylston is his cousin and next heir and was aged 17 on the Feast of St. Katherine the Virgin last past (25 Nov).
—Chancery Inq. P.M. Cumbd. 10 Hen. VII. No. 4.
July 26. (1499). On a marble slab fixed in the south wall of the chancel of Penrith church, charged with the arms of Moresby, a cross, in the first quarter a cinque foil, is the following inscription: Hic jacet Christophorus Moresby Miles, qui obiit 26 die Mensis Julii A.D. MCCCCLXXXXIX Jesu Mcy.
—Jefferson's Leath Ward, p. 51.
Dec. 16. (1499). Inq. taken at Durham Monday 16 Decr 6th Bishop Fox (1499) after the death of Sir Christopher Moresby, Knt. He died 25 July last and Ann Pickering is his daughter and next heir and is aged 30 and more.
—Durham Ina. P.M. Portf. 169, No. 46.
Sir Lancelot Thyrkyll
17 Hen. VII (1501).
Nov. 17.
One of the Knights of the Bath created at the marriage of Arthur Prince of Wales.
—Beatson's Political Index, Part 2, p. 105.
Sir Lancelot Thyrkeld
14 & 17 Hen. VII.
(1498) & (1502).
Inq. taken at Caldbecke co. Cumbd 9 June 17 Hen. 7 (1502) after the death of Margaret Hudelston widow deceased. Seised of manors of Blennerhasset and Upmanby in said co and lands in Penreth and Caldegate next Carlisle in said co. She died 17 Oct. 14 Hen. VII (1498) and Richard Hudelston is her son and next heir and is aged 21 and more. Sir Lancelot Thyrkeld Knt, occupied and received the issues and profits of the said Manors &c., from the said 17 Oct. 14 Hen. VII to the Feast of St. Martin in hyeme (11 Nov.) 17 Hen. VII (1502) and the said Richard Hudelston occupied and received the issues of the same from the said Feast of St. Martin to the date of this Inq.
—Inq. P.M. Chancery Series, 19 Hen. VII. No. 86.
Sir Lancelot Threlkeld
18 Hen. VII (1503).
Escorted Margaret to Scotland to be married to James IV. of Scotland.
Sir Lancelot Trikkeld
21 Hen. VII (1506).
May 5.
Special Pardon and release to Sir Lancelot Trikkeld Knt. of Yanwith co Westm. late Sheriff of Cumberland of all matters connected with his said office and of all entries on the manors of Blenerhasset and Upmanby co Cumb and on all lands &c. in those places and in Carlisle & Penrith in same co Amotbrige co Westm. & Egilthorp Barnyngham Bows Bolron (?) & Lartyngton co York lately the inheritance of Margaret wife of the said Lancelot deceased and in the King's hands by the minority of Richard Huddilston her son & heir.
—Patent Rolls, 21 Hen. VII. Part 3, mem. 22.
Sir Lancelot Threlkeld
3 Hen. VIII (1512).
Partition Deed of the Estates of the late Sir Lancelot Threlkeld between Thomas Dudley and Grace his wyf one of the doughters and Heyrs of Lancelote Threlkeld Knyght of the one Part and James Pykeryng and Wynefride his wyf Another of the doughters of the second part and Willm Pykeryng and Wynefride his wyf another of the doughters of the third part.
—Lowther Papers.
10 Hen. VIII (1518).
Oct. 28.
Inq. taken at Kingston on Hull after the death of Sir Brian Stapleton of Wighall Knt, decd. Wife Joan (née Threlkeld) mentioned. He died 18 Sept. last & Christopher Stapilton is his son and next heir and is aged 33 and more.
—Chancery Inq. P.M. 10 Hen. VIII. No. 50.


Little is known of the personal or domestic history of the family, and that little commences with the first Sir Lancelot. He seems to have been, at one time, at variance with his father, but the cause of this does not appear. He married Margaret, the only child and heiress of Henry Bromflete, Lord Vescy, and widow of John, Lord Clifford, who fell at Ferry Bridge, in 1461, at the early age of twenty-six, and from the terms of Inq. P.M., held on Lord Vescy in 1470, Margaret, then the wife of Sir Lancelot Threlkeld, must have been very young, although the mother of two children, at the death of her first husband. If she brought an accession of fortune and of consequence to her second lord it was not unaccompanied by care, for her sons had to be secreted from the vengeance of the Yorkist faction, Lord Clifford having incurred their special hatred by slaying the young Earl of Rutland, whom they always described as a child compared with his adversary, whereas there was, after all, no great disparity of age between the two.

That Sir Lancelot strove not unsuccessfully to preserve the lives of his stepsons, the not unworthy words of Wordsworth bear record--

[Threlkeld One-Name Study Note: The following lines are excerpted from Song at the Feast of Brougham Castle: Upon the Restoration of Lord Clifford, the Shepherd, to the Estates and Honours of His Ancestors, William Wordsworth; written at Coleorton, Leicestershire, 1806; Ed.]

"Give Sir Lancelot Threlkeld praise,
Hear it good man old in days,
Thou tree of covert and of rest
For this young bird that was distrest;
Among thy branches safe he lay,
And he was free to sport and play
When falcons were abroad for prey."

It is a curious fact, which one cannot help associating with Sir Lancelot and the concealment of the young Cliffords, that there is a secret chamber or nook at Yanwath Hall, only discovered within the last few years. Sir Lancelot had three sons; Lancelot his successor, James or John, of whom nothing seems to be known, and Christopher, of whom more hereafter. He had also four daughters; Margaret, who married Sir Christopher Moresby; Johan, who became the wife of Sir Brian Stapleton; Anne, who married Sir Hugh Lowther; and Elizabeth. Sir Lancelot probably died before 1492. He was buried in Crosby Ravensworth church, where the Arms of Threlkeld, impaling the cross of the Vescys and the bend floury of the Bromfletes in a manner not strictly in accordance with the rules of heraldry, may be seen on the massive tomb, in the vault beneath which, Sept. 20, 1745, was also laid Robert Lowther, the eccentric and tyrannical father of the sole Earl of Lonsdale of the first creation, who, in both characteristics far exceeded the paternal example.

His wife no doubt survived him, for she died at her ancestral estate in Londesborough, April 14, 1493.

The eldest son of Sir Lancelot, and the second of that name, married firstly, Elyn Radclyffe, as I find briefly stated in a pedigree attached to my papers on the Lowther House, in Penrith. Writing at Naples, without being able to refer to my authority, I cannot give my proofs, but I am sure the statement is correct. I think she would be the mother of his children. His second marriage was, like his father's, calculated to bring èclat and a good dowry to his house, for Margaret was the illegitimate daughter of Richard Neville, the great Earl of Warwick, and widow of Richard Hudleston, K.B., eldest son of Sir John Hudleston, of Millom, whom he predeceased. By Sir Richard she had a son and two daughters. Sir Lancelot was created a Knight of the Bath at the marriage of Arthur, Prince of Wales, in 1501; he was also one of the escort of the Princess Margaret when she went to Scotland to marry King James the IV. of that kingdom. I am unable to state when he or his second wife died, or where they were buried; but he was dead before 1513, the date of the partition deed of his estate amongst his three daughters. Elizabeth, who had married James Pickering, took Crosby Ravensworth; Winifred, who married William Pickering, the brother of James, (both younger sons of Anne, the heiress of Sir Christopher Moresby by their aunt Margaret Threlkeld, which Anne had married Sir James Pickering of Killington and Winderwath,) took Threlkeld; and Grace, the eldest daughter, whom Dugdale and some other genealogists erroneously call Sarah, brought her husband, Thomas Dudley, the beautiful domain of Yanwath, the descent of which I propose to follow till it became merged in the wide-spreading possessions of the Lowther family.

I forbear attempting to connect any special members of the family of Threlkeld with the various dates at which Yanwath Hall was built, added to, or altered. The able paper by Dr. Taylor in the first Vol. of our Transactions, gives the periods approximately from the Architectural features; but I must protest against the statements made in Parker's Domestic Architecture, Vol. II, p. 216, where it is asserted that "the original structure is believed to have been built by John de Sutton who married Margaret, heiress of the De Somerie family, in 1322." Now the Suttons or Dudleys, for the younger branches chose to take the title as a surname, had no connection with Westmerland or Cumberland until Edmund Sutton, eldest son of John, 4th Baron Dudley, married to his second wife, Maud daughter of Thomas, 8th Baron Clifford (and sister of John, 9th Lord, first husband of the Bromflete heiress), and it was the marriage of Thomas, son of this Edmund and Maud, with Grace Threlkeld that brought about the Yanwath connection soon after 1500.

I have no wish to disparage a very valuable work, but probably this utterly baseless assertion was foisted upon the unsuspecting Parker by the same individual who led him to insert a statement in Vol. II. p. 225, that "in the first year of Edward II, Licences were granted to Willelmus de Dacre and Richardus le Brun to crenellate their houses, both described as situated at Dunmalloch, in the Marches of Cumberland, (Dunmalloch in Marchibus). There seems good reason to believe that these two houses are Dacre Castle and Brougham Hall, which are within a few miles of each other, and both near to a hill called Dunmaloch." There is no reason to believe any such erroneous assertion. There were three licences to crenellate granted in the first year of Edward II. One was to Robert de Tylliol for mansum suum at Scaleby; another to Willelmus de Dacre for mansum suum near Dunmalloght, which refers clearly to Dacre Castle; and the other to Richardus le Brun for mansum suum at Drombogh which is undoubtedly Drumbrugh, and has no reference whatever to Brougham Hall which, it is well known, has every claim to beauty of site and architecture, but none to antiquity. I do not know at what degree of fortification a licence to crenellate became necessary; certainly Pele Towers in the Border districts were exempt; but Yanwath had a fortified area, and was situated at a most important ford, and yet it is not amongst those enumerated in Parker's List.

With regard to Threlkeld Hall, there are doubts about its actual site, the very stones having been taken away.

The Hall of Crosby Ravensworth still stands, though many of its original features have vanished; enough, however, I think, yet remain to enable a well-qualified member of our Society to give us an interesting article on a dwelling in which Sir Lancelot Threlkeld took great delight; for, in the oft-repeated quotation, he was wont to say he had "three noble houses; one for pleasure, Crosby in Westmorland, where he had a park full of deer; one for profit and warmth, wherein to reside in winter, namely, Yanwith, nigh Penrith; and the third, Threlkeld, well stocked with tenants to go to the wars."

Over the main entrance of Crosby Ravensworth Hall are eight Coats of Arms:

1st. A Lion rampant, for Pickering.
2nd. 3 Chaplets, for Lascells of Eskrigg.
3rd. A Cross, with a Cinquefoil in the ist quarter, for Moresby.
4th. Party per fess 6 Martlets, counterchanged, for Fenwick.
5th. A Lion rampant, debruised with a bend, for Tilliol.
6th. A Cross, probably for Vesci (?)
7th. A Lion rampant, for (?)
8th. A Maunch, for Threlkeld. Crest a Paw (?) displayed. Supporters, dexter a Lion, sinister a Unicorn.

The singular way in which Crosby Ravensworth passed from Sir John Lowther, father to the 1st Bart., who had purchased it from the last of the Pickerings, and ultimately reverted to the house of Lowther, is worthy of notice. Sir John gave it as a marriage portion to his daughter Frances, the wife of John Dodsworth; after several transfers, it was bought by Robert Lowther, a scion of the house, whose son became, on failure of the stern, the head of the family, and ever since it has formed a portion of their accumulated estates.


Of James Threlkeld (or John, as he is called in the Rawlinson Manuscript Pedigree in the Bodleian Library), the second son of the first Sir Lancelot Threlkeld and his wife the Vescy heiress, I find no record beyond the doubtful name.

Christopher, the third son, married Johan, heiress of John Carliell, and acquired with her estates in both Yorkshire and Durham, and their male line was continued, as is indicated in the pedigree, to the third generation, but I find nothing to characterize these descendants individually. The outline of life sketched by Barry Cornwall might have been the moan of this offshoot—

"We are born, we laugh, we weep,
We love, we droop, we die;
Ah! wherefore do we laugh or weep?
Why do we live or die?
Who knows that secret deep?
Alas! not I."

Christopher Thirlkeld
4th Bp. Sherwood,
1486-7), Jan. 10.
Inq. at Bishop Auckland after the death of John Carlile. Johan aged 21 wife of Christopher Thirlkeld is his daughter and next heir.
—Durham Inq. P.M.
Christopher Thyrkeld
31 Hen. VIII (1539).
Sept. 22.
Inq. taken at the Castle of York after the death of Christopher Thyrkeld Esq. decd. Seized of property in Estrop &c. Son Christopher married or to marry Josia daughter of Sir William Constable of Hatfield Knt. Wife Joan dead. He died 6 Decr last and Christopher Thyrkeld is his son and next heir and is aged 42.
—Inq. P.M., No. 50, 31 Hen. VIII.
Christopher Threlkeld
3 & 4 Phil. & Mary.
(1556). Sept. 29.
Inq. taken at Holden ? co. York, after the death of Christopher Threlkeld gent. decd. Manor of Esthorpe in said county &c., &c. &c. A capital messuage &c., in Touthorpe next Lonesburgh in said co. now in the tenure of Josia Threlkeld widow. Died 20 Sept. 2 & 3 Ph. & M. (1555), and Marmaduke Threlkeld Esq. is his son and next heir and is and was at the death of his said father aged 24 and more.
—Inq. P.M., 3 & 4 Ph. & M., Part ii., No. 43.
Marmaduck Thirkell
June 4, 1566.
Will of Margaret Hilton of Northe Riddick Wedow, dated June 4, 1566. "I will yt my sone Marmaduck Thirkell & his wife Elizabeth &c. shall have the goverme't of my said sonnes & daughters. Item I give to Elizabeth Thirkell & Joyes Thirkell to eather of them one silver spone. Michall Constable and Marmaduk Thirkell my sonnes in law and my nephew Anthony Thomlinson supvisors."
—Surtees Socy; Durham Wills. Vol. i., p. 265.
Marmaduke Thirkeld
Sept. 19, (1581).
Will of Robert Hylton of Butterweyk dated Sept. 19, 1581. Proved Oct. 27, 1581. "My sister Elizabeth Thirkelt (wife of Marmaduke Thirkeld of Esthorpe co. York and Pensher co. Durham.)"
—Surtees Socy; Durham Wills. Vol. ii., p. 39.
Marmaduke Threlkeld
35 Eliz. (1593).
Oct. 29.
Inq. taken at Pocklington co. York after the death of Marmaduke Threlkeld Esq. decd. Seized of the Manor of Easthorpe &c., &c. By Indenture dated 20 June, 11 Eliz. (1569), (between the said Marmaduke Thirkeld of Easthroppe Esq., of the one part and Anthony Langdaill of Santon of the other part) it was agreed that Richard Langdaill son and heir of the said Anthony and Joyce Thirlkeld daughter of the said Marmaduke should marry together. The marriage took place and they had issue William Langdaill and are both dead. Marmaduke Thirkeld died to March last and William Langdale son of the said Richard by the said Joyce is his next heir and is aged i6.
—Inq. P.M., 36 Eliz. Part i., No. 104.

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